HARBOR (COMMON) SEALS

Phoca vitulina sbsp. - west to east

Insular Kuril seal (Phoca vitulina stejnegeri)
- Hokkaido, Japan to Western Aleutians, Alaska
Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii/richardsi)
- Central Aleutians, Alska to Baja California, Mexico
Ungava freshwater seal (Phoca vitulina mellonae)
- Northern Quebec, Canada
Western Atlantic harbor seal (Phoca vitulina concolor)
- South Carolina, USA to Greenland
Eastern Atlantic harbor seal (Phoca vitulina vitulina)
- Svalbard, Norway to France

RESOURCES
Pacific Harbor Seal Natural History
[ The Marine Mammal Center ]
From the Education Department of one of the world's leading seal hospitals.

Harbor Seals in Alaska
[ NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service ]
Research, management, and analysis from Federal enforcement agency

Scientific Data for Phoca vitulina (Harbour Seal)
[ Seal Conservation Society ]
UK center for protection and conservation of pinnipeds

FURTHER RESEARCH RESOURCES
Pacific harbor seal:
[ 2011 Annual Report of Pt. Reyes Harbor Seal Monitoring Program (4.6Mb PDF) ]
[ 1997-2001 Five Year Cumulative Study from Pt. Reyes Program (3.7Mb PDF) ]
[ 2010 NAMMCO Publication #8: Harbour Seals in the North Atlantic and Baltic (Index page) ]

OTHER RELATED / SIMILAR SPECIES - west to east
Larga / spotted seal (Phoca largha)
Ribbon seal (Phoca fasciata)
Ringed seal (Phoca hispida / Pusa hispida )
Harp seal (Phoca groenlandica / Pagophilus groenlandica)
Caspian seal (Phoca caspica / Pusa capsica)
Nerpa / Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica / Pusa sibirica)